Ethnology

(Ethnic groups and tribes which I met, who still - at least when I was there - retain a strong cultural identity)

My top 10

Danis (Papua, Indonesia) : a tribe of former warriors in a remote high valley where men are naked except for a penis gourd. It was a travel back to prehistory ! (1976)
Korowaï (Papua, Indonesia) : a 'stone age' tribe living in tree-houses, deep in the equatorial forest. This tribe was discovered only in 1974. (2001)
Tsaatans (Mongolia) : a non-Mongol group  of nomadic reindeer herders in the taïga, doomed to disappear in a near future. (2007)
Nenets (Russian Arctic) : nomadic reindeer herders. I spent a week with a family & was lucky enough to watch the transhumance when they move their camp. (2008)
Peoples of the Omo Valley (Ethiopia) : a mosaic of different ethnic groups, especially the Mursi & their lip plate women. (1987)
North Vietnam minorities next to the Chinese & lao borders : a kaleidoscope of colorful national costumes. (2008)
Hakkas (China) : a minority living in communal round fortresses. (2011)
Dogons (Mali) : an ethnic group with strong religious traditions, rich wooden sculpture and specific architecture. (1981)
Dongs & Miaos (China) : large minorities with strong traditions, unique covered bridges & very impressive national costumes. (2002)
Himbas (Namibia) : their hair & naked body is covered in ochre ; a trip back to prehistory, about 30 years ago.  (1991)

 

Africa

Benin
Somba
Northwest. Traditional homes ('tatas') built as  fortresses for protection from wild animals & intruders (January 1993).

Central African Republic
Bayaka (Pygmies)
Dzanga-Sangha rainforest. Hunter-gatherers, still living in small round huts made of branches and leaves. Saw Bayaka practicing net-hunting (May 2017).

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mbuti (Pygmies)
South Kivu. Northeast, Ituri forest (Beni area). Also named : Bambuti. Reached after some exhausting trekking in the equatorial forest. 
They are still hunter-gatherers ; naked except a loincloth. Saw them hunting (July 1989).ill often living in traditional round leaf and liana huts . 
 

Chad
Toubou
North. Nomadic camel breeding people. An amazing place : Archei guelta with hundreds of camels (November 2002).
 

Djibouti
Afar
Semi nomadic people with still traditional huts (dabeytas) (February 2018)

Eritrea
Rashaïda
Inland & Dosse Island (Dahlak Islands). Nomadic tribe. Also named : Rashaayda, Bani. Migrated from Saudi Arabia ; still wearing traditional clothes & jewels, raising camels (November 1994).

Ethiopia
Afar
Dankalia. In Dallol : Afars extracting slabs of salt & camel caravans loaded with salt ; awesome ! (March 2006).
Also named : Danakils. Traditionally pastoralists, raising goats, sheep, and cattle; Also met in Eritrean side of Dankalia in Eritrea in November 1994.
Konso
Arba Minch & Sagan River area. Traditional round dwellings around the 'generation mast', tombs with phallic images (December 1987).
Tsamaico
Between Weito & Omo Valleys. Traditional herders with villages surrounded by thorny branches for protection (December 1987). 
Hamer
Omo Valley. Women wearing skirts with metal pieces & iron rings, elaborate hair dressing. Young women wear a strange metal cap peak (December 1987).
Galeb
Omo Valley. Huts covered with branches & animal skins (December 1987). 
Bume
Omo Valley. Women with multicolored collars (December 1987).
Karo
Omo Valley.Round straw huts. Young girls wear long ear rings. Women wear elaborate collars (December 1987).
Mursi
Omo Valley. The most well known tribe with women with lip plates (January 1988).

Guinea
Peul
Fouta Djalon plateau. Doucky & Lélouma Bamboo ladders. Decorated Peuls dwellings (January 2006).
I also met Peuls in Mali, Niger (the Woodaabe branch & their courtship ritual ; see below) & Ivory Coast.

Ivory Coast
Yacouba
East & North (Danane, Man & Touba). Also named : Dan. Vatouo Liana bridge. Still very traditional villages (Godufuma, Silakoro …). Saw a stilt dance (March 2017).
Dozo
North (Odienne). Traditional hunters fraternity, mainly Malinke. Wearing a brown suit & gris-gris amulets. Saw a night ritual dance (March 2017).
Senufo
North (Korhogo, Kong). Very traditional villages (Niofoin, Landa …). Sacrificial sites & idol huts. Saw an initiation dance (Poro) (March 2017).
Akan
Southeast. Agni (Anyi) branch : saw a ritual dance of trance and possession by 'Komian' priestesses all clad in white, supposed to cure illnesses (near Abengourou) & met the King of Sanwi Kingdom (in Krindjabo) (March 2017).
 

Kenya
Samburu
Rift Valley (South of Lake Turkana) Semi-nomadic pastoralists. A sub tribe of the Maasai (March 2018)
Maasai
Also met in Tanzanie (March 2018)

Madagascar
Mahafaly
Betioky-Ampamihy area (South). Known for large tombs built to honor dead chiefs topped by wooden sculptures and heaps of zebu horns (May 1998).
Vezo
Southwestern coast (S of Toliara). Semi-nomadic coastal people with traditional fishing pirogues (May 1998). 

Mali
Dogon
Bandiagara cliff. Known for their religious traditions, their mask dances, wooden sculpture and their architecture (March 1981).

Mauritania
Tadjakant
Adrar. Nomadic people (March 2004).

Namibia
Himba
Kaokoland. Himbas cover themselves with a brown paste. Women are nude except for a tiny calfskin skirt (July 1991).

Niger
Touareg
Ténéré. Exceptional : semi-annual salt caravan ('azalei') (March 2007). 
Touaregs also met in other countries : Libya (Libyan desert) (January 1996), Algeria (Hoggar & Tassili N'Ajjer) (February 1987) …
Bororo
Ténéré southern edge (Agadez area). Wodaabe Fula (Peuls Bororo) with an annual courtship ritual competition ('Guéréwol') (magic & exceptional) (October 2004).

Senegal
Bassari
Kedougou area (Southeast). Traditional thatched round dwellings (March 1986).

Tanzania
Songo
West of Lake Natron. Small tribe often fighting the Masaïs ; the villages differ (entrance of dwellings made of trunks …) (October 2004).
Masaï
Northwest. Well-known semi nomadic people of herders (October 2004).

 

Americas

Colombia
Gambiano
Cauca (Silvia area). Also named Misak. Still wearing a blue and black outfit & black bowler hat (February 2010).

Peru
Uros
Lake Titicaca. On floating islands made of ' totoras' (still ok in 1979, it is now a real shameful 'human zoo') (July 1979).

Suriname
Marroon
Descendants of slaves who escaped in the forests & now live in small villages with animistic shrines (September 2014).

 

Asia (including Middle East)

Bhutan
Layap
North (close to Tibet). Women wear a small bamboo conical hat topped by a stylised stupa (Laya, highest village in Bhutan) (October 2015).

China
Hakka
Fujian (Yongding area). Hakka are known for the ' tulous' where they live. A 'tulou' is a large, enclosed and fortified earth building, rectangular or circular in configuration, with very thick load-bearing rammed earth walls between 3 and 5 stories high and housing up to 800 people (tulou clusters seen : Nanxi, Hong Keng, Gāo Běi, Yuchang Lou, Tianluokeng, Chuxi, Hua'an Dadi, Yongding) (December 2011).
Dong
Guizhou. Also named : Kam. An important people renowned for its unique architecture, in particular their drum towers & their covered bridges known as the 'wind and rain bridges'. Costumes worn for festivals & special
events are awesome ! (October 2002).
Miao
Guizhou. Miaos wear also particularly impressive costumes for festivals & special events. Miaos belong to the same ethnic group named Hmong in Vietnam (October 2002).
Mosuo
Yunnan (Lake Lugu area). Small ethnic group, close to Tibet border, practicing a shamanism influenced by Tibetan buddhism. Society is mostly matriarchal : women often head the household, inheritance is through females, but men have the political power. Mosuo dances are spectacular (March 2005).
Nashi
Yunnan (Lake Lugu area). Also named : Naxi, Nakhi. Large ethnic group, having its own writing (March 2005). 
Yi 
Yunnan (Dali & Lijiang areas). Also named : Lolo in Vietnam (Ninglang) (March 2005).
Bai
Yunnan (Dali area). Clothes are predominently white. Practicing buddhism & a native religion (benzhuism) (Xizhou) (March 2005).

India
Monpa
Arunachal Pradesh (Tawang area). A large Buddhist people of Tibetan origin. They wear the Tibetan 'chuba' & headdress made of yak hair (October 2003).
Nyishi
Arunachal Pradesh (Ziro area). Also named : Hill Miri. Men wear a headdress with a hornbill beak (often replaced by beak of another bird) (October 2003).
Apatani
Arunachal Pradesh (Ziro area). Women are tattooed and have wooden nose plugs. Buffalo horns on houses walls (Hong,  Hari, Bamen) (October 2003).
Adi 
Arunachal Pradesh (Along area). With subgroups : Gallong, Miniyong. Hill villages of bamboo huts raised on stilts (Kabu  Dulom, Yeksi) (October 2003).
Tagin
Arunachal Pradesh (Along area). A tribe quite similar to the Adi (Dulom) (October 2003).
Mishmi
Arunachal Pradesh (Roing area). Subgroup : Idu Mishmi. Large enormous bamboo & wooden longhouses (October 2003).
Khamti
Arunachal Pradesh (Namsai area). Houses built on raised floors with very low thatched roofs. Men are usually tattooed (October 2003).
Singpho
Arunachal Pradesh (E of Tezu). Buddhist & animist tribe. Oval houses. Most people tie their hair in a large knot on the crown of the head (October 2003). 
Rathwa
Gujrat (Vadodara area). Hindu & animist tribe. Houses covered with 'Pithoro' paintings. Near villages : oratories with terracotta animals  (Gondariya, Chhota Udaipur market) (October 2003).
Rabari
Gujrat (Rann of Kutch). Nomadic hindu tribe. They are camel herders and also raise sheep and goats (January 2013).
Kinnaura
Himachal Pradesh (Kinnaur). Mixed hindu-buddhist religion. Traditional villages remarkable for tall tower-shaped wooden shrines (June 2009).
Zanskari
Jammu and Kashmir  (Zanskar). Ladakhis & Zanskaris are Tibetan in their culture and religion (Feb. 2004) (Aug. 1978).
Ladakhi
Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh). Ladakhis & Zanskaris are Tibetan in their culture and religion (Feb. 2004) (Aug. 1978).
Tangkhul Naga
Manipur (Ukhrul area). Traditional houses with human skulls sculptured on the walls & buffalo skulls (Hungpung, Longpi, Numgbi) (November 2015).
Khasi
Meghalaya. War subgroup is famous for building 'living' root bridges', even a 'double decker' one (Nongriat area) (November 2015).
NE tribes
Nagaland. During 4 days in Kohima, I attended the Hornbill Festival : cultural shows, mainly dances of North East India peoples, by Nagaland tribes : Konyak, Ao, Angami, Kuki, Lotha, Yimchunger, Rengma, Garo, Pochury, Sumi, Zeliang, Kachari, Chang, Chakhesang, Sangtam, Phom, Khamniungan (November 2015).
Konyak
Nagaland (Mon area). Traditional villages with thatched longhouses, especially the headman's longhouse, full of buffalo skulls. They were headhunters ; they still keep (and show) human skulls (Longwa, Sheanghah Chingnyu, Old Mon) (November 2015).
Ao
Nagaland (Mokokchung area). In their village : log drum & 'jendong' (a 'cloud scrapping' pole supposed to make a link with the gods) (Ungwa) (November 2015).
Angami
Nagaland (Kohima area). In the middle of the villages, are the 'morung' (kind of bachelor's dormitory for the youth & for meetings) (Khonoma) (November 2015).
Odisha tribes
Odisha (Bhubaneswar). During 3 days in Bhubaneswar, I attended the 'Adivasi Mela' : cultural shows, mainly dances, of Odisha (January 2014).
Dongria Kondh
Odisha (Rayagada area). Women wear a white sari with a red stripe, have anklets on ankles, their nose is pierced by 3 rings & they have hairpins and a small knife in their hair (Chatikona market) (January 2014).
Desia Kondh
Odisha (Rayagada area). Women smoke cigars ; their nose is pierced by 2 rings with a stone in between (Phuokan, Chatikoha market) (January 2014).
Bonda
Odisha (Jeypore area). Women wear several rings around their neck and big collars covering their naked breast (Onkadelli market) (January 2014).

Indonesia
Manggarai
Flores (Ruteng). Men wearing black sarong. Traditional thatched houses (June 1983).
Ngada
Flores (Bajawa area). Megalithic tomb-like structures & houses with high thatched -roofs (Bena & others) (June 1983).
Lio
Flores (Ende area). Tribe with famous Keli Mutu lakes & volcano nearby (June 1983).
Dayak
Kalimantan. Former headhunters. Still traditional houses (1982).
Ono Niha
Nias. Fascinating megalithic culture. Villages with rows of ship-like wooden houses with 'stone jumping' stones (August 1980).
Korowaï
Papua (Southeast forest). First contact with outsiders occurred in March 1974. There are still a population of about 4,000. The majority of the Korowai live in small basic tree houses, as high as 35 meters above the ground, a way to prevent rival clans from capturing people for cannibalism or slavery. Cannibalism is not practiced anymore where contact with the outside world has already occurred. The Korowai are hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists who practice shifting cultivation. They have also excellent hunting and fishing skills  (July 2002).
Dani
Papua (Baliem Valley). Dani were only sighted in 1938 from an airplane ! In 1976, when I was there, everything was still unchanged. A fascinating trip back to stone age, involving a lot of trekking !
Dani males are famous for wearing just a penis gourd ('koteka'), while women are naked with just a skirt made of grass. Their culture is centered on sweet potato cultivation & pig breeding (some Dani women still 
breast-feed hungry piglets !!). Rarely now, ritual small-scale warfare between groups may occur (September 1976) .
Bugi
Sulawesi. Bugis are rice farmers, traders or fishermen and live in stilted houses mainly only the coast (August 1976).
Toraja
Sulawesi. Traditional villages with high thatched-roof houses. Famous for their death rituals (Aug. 2004, Aug. 1976).
Batak
Sumatra (Padang area). Notable for the architecture of the villages : ship-shaped longhouses (August 1980).
Minangkabau
Sumatra (Lake Toba area). Notable for the architecture of the villages : a row of large ship-shaped houses facing a row of granaries (August 1980).
Sumbanese
Sumba. Villages consisting of two rows of high thatched-roofs houses with 'spirit' stones in the middle.NFamous ikat weaving. Visited before Pasola (a 'mock battle' festival) (February 1984).

Laos
Katou
Boloven plateau. Very traditional. Coffins under houses. Everybody including small children smoking water pipes (Ban Kok Pung) (November 1997).

Mongolia
Tsaatan
West of Khövsgöl lake. After trekking a few days in the taïga to find them, I spent a few days living with them in one of their camps. Less than 300 people remain. Tsaatans (also called Dukhans) are nomadic reindeer herders in the taïga. Their camps usually include two to seven tents for just a few households. They move camp to find optimum grazing for their reindeer. They live in yurts made of birch bark and reindeer hide that resemble the tepees 
of Native-Americans. They wear traditional Mongolian overcoats ('deels') and have strong and warm boots fashioned from the hides and sinew of their reindeer. They practice Shamanism (Sept. Oct. 2007).
Torgut mongols
Bulgan. Camel herders (fringes of Gobi desert). Seen at the winter 1000 camels festival. 
Attended the 1st haircut  of a child (a major event in someone's life) (February 2006).

Myanmar
Mon Chin
Chin State (Mindat area). Face tatooed women ; large tall tombstones in front of dwellings. A strange custom : reciprocal feeding  (Aye, Kyador, Lupe, Panoh) (January 2007).
Tai Chin
Chin State (Mindat area). Face tattooed women with very large earrings (January 2007).
Shakama
Rakhine State (Arakan) (N of Mrauk U). Also named : Thet. Traditional tribe whose women have particular big earrings (January 2007).
Lay Too Chin
Rakhine State (Arakan) (N of Mrauk U). Old women still have unique and interesting facial tatoos, many like a spider (Sankay, Pan Paung) (January 2007).
Palaung
Shan state. Women with a black blouse, a red skirt & a belt made up of metal rings (Wan Pauk) (January 2007).
Akha 
Shan state. Large & very colorful minority. Women are noted for their headdresses decorated with silver coins, monkey fur, and dyed chicken feathers (Ho Lap & many other villages) (January 2007).
Wa
Shan state. Small buddhist minority, used to be involved in the opium cultivation, as other tribes (Naung Cho) (January 2007).  
Eng
Shan state. Women are known for their black teeth (they believe black teeth are attractive and chew tree bark and betel nut to darken them) (Wan Lin, Nam Lin Mai, Paung Lea) (January 2007).     
Lahu shi (Yellow Lahu)
Shan state. Remote tribe, also with traditional outfit. Young girls put on a pink make up on their face (Ponk Kar, Pang Piak) (January 2007).
Lahu na (Black Lahu)
Shan state. Remote tribe. Women wear black blouses and skirts often with red sripes & a black turban (Hoi Pon) (January 2007).
Loi 
Shan state. They live in longhouses shared by several families (Wan Nyet) (January 2007).

Nepal
Tsumpa
Tsum Valley (next to Ganesh Himal). People of Tibetan origin living in a remote valley close to Tibet (Oct. Nov. 2013).
Mithila 
Southeast (Teraï). Hindu tribe (also in India) famous for its houses decorated with paintings inspired from Ramayana (October 2012) .
Limbu
Eastern Nepal (Taplejung area). People of Tibetan origin (also visited in Sikkim) (October 2012) .
Lepcha
Eastern Nepal (Kanchenjunga area). Also named : Rong. Buddhist people also encountered in Sikkim (October 2012) .
Tamang
Northwest of Kathmandu. Very traditional villages such as Gatlang (Tamang Heritage Trail) (October 2011) .
Hyolmo
Helambu (North of Kathmandu)Buddhist people met on the way to the sacred Gosainkund lakes (October 2011) .
Magar
Dhaulagiri range & Kali Gandaki areas. A buddhist people with still shamanism practices. In high altitude villages, traditional outfits are still worn (November 2009). 
Sherpa
Solukhumbu (Namche Bazar area). Well-known ethnic group of Tibetan origin (Oct. Nov. 2006) .
Dolpopa
Dolpo. Buddhist people in a remote region next to Tibet, one of the very few with a truly authentic Tibetan culture (Sept. Oct. 2005).
Lhopa
Mustang. A very ancient kingdom with a strong Tibetan culture, which I visited just when it was open to foreigners (April May 1983).
Gurung
Pokhara & Annapurna range areas. One of the most important ethnic group in Nepal with still traditional villages ; still retaining its customs (April 1977 & others).
Thakali
Kali Gandaki valley. Mostly buddhists, this ethnic group is now losing its traditions (April 1977 & others).

Pakistan
Kalash
Very traditional people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwestern Pakistan, near Afghanistan). When not converted to islam, they practice an ancient Indo-Aryan religion, somehow a form of ancient Hinduism (May 2018).
Hunzakut
Very famous people living in Hunza valleys (Baltistan, Northern Pakistan). They were known to live well over 100 years ... (May 2018).

Philippines
Igorot
Luzon : Also named : Ifugaos. Former headhunters, they are now famous for their rice terraces at Banaue (December 1981).
Bajau
Sulu Archipelago (Jolo Island). Also named : Badjaos. These 'Sea Gypsies' or 'Sea Nomads', dwelling on their small wooden boats, are nomadic & seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing (April 1982).

Russia
Even
Sakha Republic (Iakutia) : Still partly nomadic & practicing reindeer herding. At Topolinoe : saw the annual Even Reindeer herders festival (March April 2014).
Nenets
Yamalo-Nenets Okrug : A fantastic experience : I spent one week in a Nenets camp. A large proportion of the Nenets people is still nomadic (March April 2008).
I participated in their transhumance when they move their camp. 
Chukchi
Tchoukotka : Still often practicing subsistence hunting & reindeer herding ; living in 'Yarangas' (rounded reindeer-hide tent) (July 2005).
Evenk
Kamtchatka : Still often practicing subsistence hunting & reindeer herding ; living in 'Chums' (conical reindeer-hide tent) (August 2001).

Taïwan (Orchid Island)
Yami
Also named : Tao. With unique semi-subterranean dwellings (March 1983).

Vietnam (Provinces adjoining Chinese & lao borders)
Black Tay
Wear a black shirt, a long dress with a blue or orange belt & silver necklaces (Ban La, Tasa, Ban Lien) (April May 2008).
White Tay
Wear indigo headscarf, shirt, pants, and belt & wear silver necklaces (Ban Pan, Ban Ho) (April May 2008).
Tai Lü 
Also named : Lu.  One of the most backward minority in Vietnam (near Binh Lu, Tamduong weekly market) (April May 2008).
Nùng
All in black with a lot of necklaces (Phugsen, Can Cau weekly market, Muong Khuong weekly market) (April May 2008).
Lolo
A small but colourful minority (Yi in China) (Coc Xa, Bao Lac market) (April May 2008).
Red Dao
Red turban together with chunky silver jewelry (Nam Det, Ta Phin, Tham Phu, Sin Chai, Tamduong weekly market) (April May 2008).
Black Dao
Black turban together with chunky silver jewelry (Na That, Nam Det) (April May 2008).
Man Tien 
Yao subgroup (April May 2008).
Man Ta Pan
Yao subgroup (April May 2008).
Flower Hmong
Very colorful muticolored clothes.  All Hmongs subgroups encountered in villages & markets :
Blue Hmong
Coc Ly weekly market, Can Cau weekly market, Ban Pho, Ban Lau weekly market, Muong Khuong weekly market (April May 2008).
Green Hmong
Wear a mostly green outfit with round metal pieces (Bao Lac market) (April May 2008).
White Hmong
Women wear a white blouse (Dongvan market) (April May 2008).
Red  Hmong
Wear a mostly red outfit with round metal pieces (Muong Lum) (April May 2008).
Black Hmong
Wear a mostly black outfit with round metal pieces (Meovac market & others, Suoi Ho, Matra, Mongsen) (April May 2008).
San Chi
Women wear a bizarre headdress in metal with a large needle (Bao Lac market, Khuoi Doc) (April May 2008).
Pa Then
Small minority. Women headdress  is a black cloth wrapped in the shape of a  cylinder (Meovac market, My Bac) (April May 2008).
Giáy
Women wear dark blue / black trousers with a red stripe (Boc Ban, Ban Lau weekly market, Tavan) (April May 2008).
Phù Lá 
Also named : Xa Pho. Women wear a blue outfit, with a large stripe (near Lào Cai, Ban Lau weekly market) (April May 2008).
Khmu
Môn khmer minority. Women wear blouses embroidered with coins and snail shells (near Pa Tan) (April May 2008).

Yemen
Hadhrami
Hadramaut (South Yemen) : Women are all in black abaya and wear conical straw hats ('madhalla') shaped like witches' hats (November 1988).

 

Pacific Ocean & Australia

Australia
Aboriginal people
Oenpolli region in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory) (June 2018).
Tiwis
Aboriginal people living in Bathurst Island (Northern Territory) (June 2018).

Papua Niugini
Tribes met in  Sing Sing
Goroka : Each year, a 'sing sing' (in traditional outfit, masked dances …)  is held in the Highlands with men & women from the main tribes : Asaro ('mudmen'), 'Hewa, Huli, Abelam, Mendi, Foi, Enga, Telefomin, Kaluli,
Simbu, Yangoru, Kominimung, Biami, Morehead, Bilibil, Melpa, Huli, Gogodala
… (August 1982).
Iatmul
Downstream Sepik River : Exceptional carvings.  Large common dwellings & spirit houses ('Haus Tambaran') (August 1982).
Duna
Highlands (around Lake Kopiago) : Also named : Yuna (August 1982).
Huli
Highlands (Tari) : One of the most famous tribes of PNG, also named : 'wigmen'. Men wear a headdress made of human hair (August 1982).
Tolai
New Britain Island : Saw a secret ritual dance : invoking the male spirit 'duk duk' and female spirit 'tubuan' (August 1982).
Trobriander
Trobriand Islands. A fascinating place described by Malinovski : a melanesian people with strong customs, practicing free love & living in traditional huts facing granaries where they keep taro they consider as sacred (August 1982).

Vanuatu 
Big Namba
Malekula Island  : Name of these 2 tribes derives from 'namba' which is a traditional penis sheath (Big Nambas have a large one). Villages have sacrificial squares. Saw very interesting dances (September 2002),
Small Namba
Malekula Island  : Name of these 2 tribes derives from 'namba' which is a traditional penis sheath (Small Nambas have a smaller one). Villages have sacrificial squares. Saw very interesting dances (September 2002),

 

(UPDATED : JULY 2018)

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